Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given each in England and America, talking of the motion of this substance on the blood after passing from the abdomen, says:
„Suppose, then, a sure measure of alcohol be taken into the abdomen, it will likely be absorbed there, however, earlier to absorption, it should bear a correct diploma of dilution with water, for there may be this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it’s separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid just like the blood, that it’s going to not go by the membrane till it has grow to be charged, to a given level of dilution, with water. It’s itself, the truth is, so grasping for water, it would choose it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it till, by its saturation, its energy of reception is exhausted , after which it would diffuse into the present of circulating fluid.“
It’s this energy of absorbing water from each texture with which alcoholic spirits is available in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those that freely bask in its use. Its impact, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson:
„Because it passes by the circulation of the lungs it’s uncovered to the air, and a few little of it, raised into vapor by the pure warmth, is thrown off in expiration. If the amount of or not it’s massive, this loss could also be appreciable, and the odor of the spirit could also be detected within the expired breath. If the amount be small, the loss might be comparatively little, because the spirit might be held in answer by the water within the blood. After it has handed by the lungs, and has been pushed by the left coronary heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what known as the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries right here lengthen into very small vessels, that are referred to as arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, that are in the end to grow to be the nice rivers bearing the blood again to the center. In its passage by this minute circulation the alcohol finds its solution to each organ. To this mind, to those muscle mass, to those secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony construction itself, it strikes with the blood. In a few of these elements which aren’t excreting, it stays for a time subtle, and in these elements the place there’s a massive share of water, it stays longer than in different elements. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, because the liver and kidneys, it’s thrown out or eradicated, and on this method a portion of it’s in the end faraway from the physique. The remaining passing spherical and spherical with the circulation, might be decomposed and carried off in new types of matter.
„Once we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage by the physique, from the interval of its absorption to that of its elimination, we’re the higher capable of decide what bodily modifications it induces within the completely different organs and buildings with which it is available in contact. It first reaches the blood; however, as a rule, the amount of it that enters is inadequate to provide any materials impact on that fluid. If, nonetheless, the dose taken be toxic or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, wealthy as it’s in water and it accommodates seven hundred and ninety elements in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is subtle by this water, and there it is available in contact with the opposite constituent elements, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is current within the proportion of from two to a few elements in a thousand; with the albumen which exists within the proportion of seventy elements; with the salts which yield about ten elements; with the fatty issues; and lastly, with these minute, spherical our bodies which float in myriads within the blood (which have been found by the Dutch thinker, Leuwenhock, as one of many first outcomes of microscopical commentary, concerning the center of the seventeenth century), and that are referred to as the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named our bodies are, the truth is, cells; their discs, when pure, have a easy define, they’re depressed within the centre, and they’re crimson in shade; the colour of the blood being derived from them. Now we have found that there exist different corpuscles or cells within the blood in a lot smaller amount, that are referred to as white cells, and these completely different cells float within the blood-stream inside the vessels. The crimson take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally close to the perimeters of the vessels, shifting much less rapidly. Our enterprise is especially with the crimson corpuscles. They carry out an important capabilities within the economic system; they soak up, in nice half, the oxygen which we inhale in respiratory, and carry it to the intense tissues of the physique; they soak up, in nice half, the carbonic acid fuel which is produced within the combustion of the physique within the excessive tissues, and convey that fuel again to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; briefly, they’re the very important devices of the circulation.
„With all these elements of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol is available in contact when it enters the blood, and, if or not it’s in adequate amount, it produces disturbing motion. I’ve watched this disturbance very fastidiously on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we are able to see these floating alongside throughout life, and we are able to additionally observe them from males who’re below the consequences of alcohol, by eradicating a speck of blood, and analyzing it with the microscope. The motion of the alcohol, when it’s observable, is diversified. It might trigger the corpuscles to run too carefully collectively, and to stick in rolls; it could modify their define, making the clear-defined, easy, periphery irregular or crenate, and even starlike; it could change the spherical corpuscle into the oval type, or, in very excessive circumstances, it could produce what I could name a truncated type of corpuscles, during which the change is so nice that if we didn’t hint it by all its phases, we must be puzzled to know whether or not the item checked out have been certainly a blood-cell. All these modifications are because of the motion of the spirit upon the water contained within the corpuscles; upon the capability of the spirit to extract water from them. Throughout each stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their operate to soak up and repair gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in lots, is nice, different difficulties come up, for the cells, united collectively, go much less simply than they need to by the minute vessels of the lungs and of the final circulation, and impede the present, by which native damage is produced.
„An extra motion upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in extra, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit might act in two alternative ways, based on the diploma during which it impacts the water that holds the fibrine in answer. It might repair the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the ability of coagulation; or it could extract the water so determinately as to provide coagulation.“