In the course of the interval between the delivery and maturity of animals, their flesh undergoes very appreciable modifications. As an example, when the animal is younger, the fluids which the tissues of the muscular tissues comprise, possess a big proportion of what’s known as albumen . This albumen, which can also be the chief element of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity of coagulating or hardening at a sure temperature, just like the white of a boiled egg, right into a smooth, white fluid, now not soluble, or able to being dissolved in water. As animals get older, this peculiar animal matter steadily decreases, in proportion to the opposite constituents of the juice of the flesh. Thus, the rationale why veal, lamb are white, and with out gravy when cooked, is, that the massive amount of albumen they comprise hardens, or turns into coagulated. Alternatively, the rationale why beef and mutton are brown, and have gravy , is, that the proportion of albumen they comprise, is small, compared with their better amount of fluid which is soluble, and never coagulable.
The standard of the flesh of an animal is significantly influenced by the character of the meals on which it has been fed ; for the meals provides the fabric which produces the flesh. If the meals be not appropriate and good, the meat can’t be good both. To the skilled on this matter, it’s well-known that the flesh of animals ate up farinaceous produce, similar to corn, pulse, &c., is agency, well-flavoured, and likewise economical within the cooking; that the flesh of these ate up succulent and pulpy substances, similar to roots, possesses these qualities in a considerably much less diploma; while the flesh of these whose meals accommodates mounted oil, as linseed, is greasy, excessive colored, and gross within the fats, and if the meals has been utilized in giant portions, possessed of a rank flavour.
It’s indispensable to the great high quality of meat, that the animal must be completely wholesome on the time of its slaughter. Nevertheless slight the illness in an animal could also be, inferiority within the high quality of its flesh, as meals, is definite to be produced. Generally, certainly, because the flesh of diseased animals tends to very fast putrefaction, it turns into not solely unwholesome, however completely toxic, on account of the absorption of the virus of the unsound meat into the methods of those that partake of it. The exterior indications of excellent and unhealthy meat will likely be described beneath its personal specific head, however we might right here premise that the layer of all healthful meat, when freshly killed, adheres firmly to the bone.
One other circumstance drastically affecting the standard of meat, is the animal’s therapy earlier than it’s slaughtered . This influences its worth and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable diploma. It will likely be straightforward to grasp this, once we mirror on these main rules by which the lifetime of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the digestion of its meals, and the assimilation of that meals into its substance. Nature, in effecting this course of, first reduces the meals within the abdomen to a state of pulp, beneath the title of chyme, which passes into the intestines, and is there divided into two rules, every distinct from the opposite. One, a milk-white fluid, the nutritive portion, is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous membrane, or inside coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents, discharge the fluid into a standard duct, or highway, alongside which it’s conveyed to the massive veins within the neighbourhood of the guts. Right here it’s combined with the venous blood (which is black and impure) getting back from each a part of the physique, after which it provides the waste which is occasioned within the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of the animal having accomplished its course by way of all elements, and having had its waste recruited by the digested meals, is now obtained into the guts, and by the motion of that organ it’s urged by way of the lungs, there to obtain its purification from the air which the animal inhales. Once more returning to the guts, it’s compelled by way of the arteries, and thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, known as capillaries, bestowing to each a part of the animal, life and nutriment. The opposite precept the innutritive portion passes from the intestines, and is thus removed. It should now be readily understood how flesh is affected for unhealthy, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood has been elevated by over-driving, ill-usage, or different causes of pleasure, to such a level of rapidity as to be too nice for the capillaries to carry out their features, and inflicting the blood to be congealed in its minuter vessels. The place this has been the case, the meat will likely be dark-coloured, and develop into quickly putrid; in order that self-interest and humanity alike dictate form and delicate therapy of all animals destined to function meals for man.