Barley is said by historians to be the oldest of all cultivated grains. It appears to have been the principal bread plant among the many historical Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. The Jews particularly held the grain in excessive esteem, and sacred historical past often makes use of it interchangeably with wheat, when talking of the fruits of the Earth.
Among the many early Greeks and Romans, barley was nearly the one meals of the widespread folks and the troopers. The flour was made into gruel, after the next recipe: „Dry, close to the fireplace or within the oven, twenty kilos of barley flour, then parch it. Add three kilos of linseed meal, half a pound of coriander seeds, two ounces of salt, and the water essential.“ If an particularly delectable dish was desired, a bit of millet was additionally added to present the paste extra „cohesion and delicacy.“ Barley was additionally used entire as a meals, through which case it was first parched, which continues to be the style of making ready it in some components of Palestine and plenty of districts of India, additionally within the Canary Islands, the place it is called gofio .
Within the time of Charles I, barley meal took the place of wheat nearly totally because the meals of the widespread folks in England. In some components of Europe, India, and different Japanese international locations, it’s nonetheless largely consumed because the atypical farinaceous meals of the peasantry and troopers. The early settlers of New England additionally largely used it for bread making.
Barley is much less nutritious than wheat, and to many individuals is much less agreeable in taste. It’s likewise considerably inferior in level of digestibility. Its starch cells being much less soluble, they provide extra resistance to the gastric juice.
There are a number of distinct species of barley, however that mostly cultivated is designated as two-rowed, or two-eared barley. Typically construction, the barley grain resembles wheat and oats.
Merely disadvantaged of its outer husk, the grain is termed Scotch milled or pot barley . Subjected nonetheless additional to the method by which the fibrous outer coat of the grain is eliminated, it constitutes what is called pearl barley . Pearl barley floor into flour is called patent barley . Barley flour, owing to the truth that it incorporates so small a proportion of gluten, must be blended with wheaten flour for bread-making functions. When added in small amount to whole-wheat bread, it tends to maintain the loaf moist, and is believed by some to enhance the flavour.
Probably the most normal use fabricated from this cereal as a meals, is within the type of pearl, or Scotch, barley. When effectively boiled, barley requires about two hours for digestion.